The bipolarity of sanctuary and avenger (Deut. 19:1-13; Num. 35:10-34) historically gave rise to the Christian doctrine of Church and state. The church buildings were sanctuaries or asylums to which people might flee for refuge. If the Church officers determined that a man was guilty, or would at least receive a fair trial, they would turn him over to the state. If he were being hounded by a mob, they could protect him until he might be helped by civil authorities. Neither king nor mob dared invade the sanctuary of the Church. In the later Middle Ages, this practice tended to be abused; but in our day we need to return to this system.